Freemasonry and Masonic rituals - Unveiling the Secrets

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Re: Freemasonry and Masonic rituals - Unveiling the Secrets

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History of Freemasonry in New Jersey pdf - John Skene: ... Jersey.pdf
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Re: Freemasonry and Masonic rituals - Unveiling the Secrets

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I find it of interest to investigate global freemasonry. In the next posts I will share some articles regarding Freemasonry in Asian and Middle-Eastern countries.
Masons and Ancient Egypt

The Ancient Egyptian materialist philosophy continued to exist after this civilization disappeared. It was adopted by certain Jews and kept alive within Kabbalist doctrine. On the other hand, a number of Greek thinkers adopted the same philosophy, and reinterpreted it and perpetuated it as the school of thought known as "Hermeticism."

The word Hermeticism comes from the name of Hermes, the Greek counterpart for the Ancient Egyptian god "Thoth." In other words, Hermeticism is the Ancient Greek version of Ancient Egyptian philosophy.

Master Mason Selami Isindag explains the origins of this philosophy and its place in modern Masonry: In Ancient Egypt there was a religious society that bequeathed a system of thought and belief to Hermeticism. Masonry held something similar to this. For example, those who had come to a certain level attended ceremonies of the society, revealed their spiritual thoughts and feelings and trained those who were at a lower level. Pythagoras was a Hermeticist trained among them. Again, the organization and the philosophical systems of the Alexandrian school and of Neoplatonism had their origins in Ancient Egypt and there are some significant similarities between them and Masonic rites.60

Isindag is much more overt about the influence of Ancient Egypt on the origins of Masonry when he declares, "Freemasonry is a social and ritual organization whose beginnings go back to Ancient Egypt."61

Many other Masonic authorities maintain that the origins of Masonry go back to secret societies of ancient pagan cultures, such as those of Ancient Egypt and Greece. A senior Turkish Mason, Celil Layiktez, stated in an article in Mimar Sinan magazine entitled, "The Masonic Secret: What is Secrecy and What is Not?":

In Ancient Greek, Egyptian and Roman civilizations there were mystery schools (écoles de mystères) which met in the context of a particular science, gnosis or secret knowledge. Members of these mystery schools were accepted only after a long period of study and initiation ceremonies. Among these schools, the first is thought to have been the school of "Osiris" based on the events of this god's birth, youth, struggle against darkness, death and resurrection. These themes were ritually dramatized in ceremonies performed by clergy and in this way the rituals and symbols being presented were much more effective because of the actual participation…

Years later, these rites formed the first circles of a series of initiated brotherhoods that would continue under the name of Masonry. Such brotherhoods always established the same ideals and, when under oppression, were able to lead their lives secretly. They were able to survive to the present-day because they continually changed their names and their forms. But they remained faithful to ancient symbolism and their particular character and passed their ideas on to each other as a legacy.

In order to mitigate against the possibility that their established ideas may threaten the establishment, they established secret laws among themselves. In order to protect themselves from the wrath of ignorant people, they took refuge in Operative Masonry which contained the discreet rules of their own trade. They inseminated this with their ideas which later influenced the formation of the modern Speculative Masonry we know today.62

In the above quotation, Layiktez praises the societies that were the origin of Masonry, and claims they kept themselves hidden to protect themselves from "ignorant people." If we can leave aside this subjective claim for a moment, we can understand from the quotation above that Masonry is a present-day representation of societies that were founded in the ancient pagan civilizations of Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece and Rome. Of these three civilizations, the oldest is Egypt; it is possible, therefore, to say that the main source of Masonry is Ancient Egypt. (We saw earlier that basic connection between this pagan tradition and modern Masons is the Templars.)

It is necessary to recall at this point that Ancient Egypt was one of the most referred to examples of a godless system as revealed by God in the Qur'an. It is the true archetype of an evil system. Many verses relate to us of the pharaohs that governed Egypt and their inner-circles, their cruelty, injustice, wickedness and excesses. Moreover, the Egyptians were a perverse people, that acquiesced to the system of their pharaohs, and believed in their false gods.

Despite this, Masons maintain that their origins lie in Ancient Egypt, and regard that civilization as praiseworthy. An article published in Mimar Sinan praises the temples of Ancient Egypt as the "source of Masonic craft":

…The Egyptians founded Heliopolis (the Sun City) and Memphis and according to Masonic legend, these two cities were the source of knowledge and science, that is, as the Masons would say "Great Light." Pythagoras, who visited Heliopolis, had much to say about the temple. The Memphis temple where he had been trained has historical significance. In the city of Thebes there were advanced schools. Pythagoras, Plato and Cicero were initiated into Masonry in these cities.63

Masonic writings do not laud Ancient Egypt merely in broad terms; they express praise and sympathy for the pharaohs who governed that cruel system. In another article from Mimar Sinan magazine it is stated:

The basic duty of the pharaoh was to find Light. To exalt Hidden Light in a much more vivid and powerful way….As we Masons are trying to construct the Temple of Solomon, so did the Ancient Egyptians try to build Ehram, or the House of Light. The ceremonies performed in the temples of Ancient Egypt were divided into several degrees. These degrees had two sections, small and great. The small degree was divided into one, two and three; after these the Great degrees began.64

It can be seen from this that the "light" which the pharaohs of ancient Egypt and Masons search for is the same . This can also be interpreted as suggesting that Masonry is a modern representative of the philosophy of the Egyptian pharaohs. The nature of this philosophy is revealed by God in the Qur'an in the judgment He passed over Pharaoh and his people: "They are a people of deviators." (Qur'an, 27: 12) In other verses, the godless system of Egypt is described in this way: Pharaoh called to his people, saying, "My people, does the kingdom of Egypt not belong to me? Do not all these rivers flow under my control? Do you not then see?..." In that way he swayed his people and they succumbed to him. They were a people of deviators. (Qur'an, 43: 51-54)

Ancient Egyptian Symbols in Masonic Lodges

One of the most important things that establishes the relation between Ancient Egypt and the Masons is their symbol Symbols are very important in Masonry. Masons reveal the true meaning of their philosophy to their members through allegory. A Mason, who advances stage by stage through the 33 degrees of the Masonic hierarchy, learns new meanings for each symbol at every stage. In this way, members descend step by step into the depths of Masonic philosophy.

An article in Mimar Sinan magazine describes this function of their symbols: We all know that Masonry expresses its ideas and ideals by means of symbols and stories, that is, allegories. These stories go back to the first ages of history. We can even say that they stretch back to legends of prehistory. In this way, Masonry has shown the antiquity of its ideals and has gained a rich source of symbols.65

The conceptions of the Ancient Egyptians are the most prominent of these symbols and legends, that stretch back to the first ages of history. Everywhere in Masonic lodges, and frequently in Masonic publications, drawings of pyramids and sphinxes and hieroglyphs can be found. In an article in Mimar Sinan magazine, about the ancient sources of Masonry, it states:

If we choose Ancient Egypt as the "most ancient" I don't think we will be mistaken. Moreover, the fact that the ceremonies, degrees and philosophy found in Ancient Egypt are most similar to those in Masonry draws our attention there first.66 Again, an article in Mimar Sinan entitled "The Social Origins and Aims of Freemasonry" says: In ancient times in Egypt, the initiation ceremonies in the temple of Memphis lasted a long time, were performed with the greatest attention and splendor, and showed many similarities to Masonic ceremonies.67

Let us examine a few examples of the relationship between Ancient Egypt and Masonry:


The most well known Masonic symbol is found on the seal of the United States of America, also found on the one-dollar bill. On this seal there is a half pyramid above which sits an eye within a triangle. This eye within the triangle is a symbol constantly found in Masonic lodges and all Masonic publications. A great number of the writings that deal with the subject of Masonry stress this fact.

The pyramid below the eye in the triangle attracts relatively little notice. However, this pyramid is extremely meaningful and enlightening for the understanding of the philosophy of Masonry. An American author, Robert Hieronimus, wrote a doctoral thesis on the United States' seal in which he provided some very important information. The title of Hieronimus' thesis was "An Historic Analysis of the Reverse of the American Great Seal and Its Relationship to the Ideology of Humanist Psychology.

" His thesis shows that the founders of America, who originally adopted the seal, had been Masons, and that they, therefore, espoused the humanist philosophy. The connection of this philosophy with Ancient Egypt is symbolized by the pyramid placed in the center of the seal. This pyramid is a representation of the Pyramid of Cheops, the largest of the Pharaoh's tombs.68

Another well-known symbol of Masonry is the six pointed star, formed by the imposition of one triangle over another. This is also a traditional symbol of the Jews, and today appears on the flag of Israel. It is known that the Prophet Solomon used it as a seal for the first time. Therefore the six-pointed star is a seal of a prophet, a divine symbol.

But, Masons have a different conception. They do not accept the six-pointed star as a symbol of the Prophet Solomon, but as a symbol of Ancient Egyptian paganism. An article in Mimar Sinan entitled "Allegory and Symbols in our Rituals" relates a number of interesting facts about this matter: An equilateral triangle with three points equidistant from one another show that these values are equivalent. This symbol adopted by the Masons is known as the Star of David; it is a hexagram formed by the imposition of one equilateral triangle on another.

Today it is known as the symbol of Judaism and appears on the flag of Israel. But actually, the origin of this symbol is in Ancient Egypt….This emblem was first created by the Templar Knights which they began to use as symbolism in wall decoration in their churches. This is because they were the first ones to discover in Jerusalem some important facts about Christianity. After the Templars were disposed of, this emblem began to be used in synagogues.

But in Masonry, we no doubt use this symbol in the universal sense that it had in Ancient Egypt. In this sense, we have combined two important forces together. If you erase the upper and lower bases of the two equilateral triangles, you will find this rare symbol that you know very well.69

Actually, we must interpret all Masonic symbols in relation to Solomon's Temple in this way. As revealed in the Qur'an, Solomon was a prophet who some wished to slander and show as having been godless. In a verse of the Qur'an, God says, "They follow what the satans recited in the reign of Solomon. Solomon did not become unbeliever, but the satans did…" (Qur'an, 2: 102)

Masons have adopted this corrupt idea mistakenly attributed to the Prophet Solomon, regarding him as a representative of the pagan beliefs of Ancient Egypt. For this reason, they afford him an important place in their doctrines. In his book The Occult Conspiracy, the American historian Michael Howard says that, since the Middle Ages, Solomon (God forbid) has been regarded as a magician and as one who introduced some pagan ideas into Judaism.70 Howard explains that the Masons regard the Temple of Solomon as a "pagan temple," and as important for this reason.71 This false image fabricated against the Prophet Solomon, who was a devout and obedient servant of God, shows the true origins of Masonry.

The Double Column

An indispensable part of the décor of a Masonic lodge is the double column in the entrance. The words "Jachin" and "Boaz" are inscribed on them, in imitation of the two columns at the entrance to Solomon's Temple. But actually, the Masons do not intend these columns as a memorial to Solomon; they are an expression of those corrupt insinuations against Solomon. The origins of these columns again go back to Ancient Egypt. In the article entitled "Allegory and Symbols in our Rituals," Mimar Sinan magazine states:

For example, in Egypt, Horus and Set were twin architects and supports of the heavens. Even Bacchus in Thebes was one too. The two columns in our lodges have their origin in Ancient Egypt. One of these columns was in the south of Egypt in the city of Thebes; the other was in the north in Heliopolis. In the entrance to the Amenta temple dedicated to Ptah, the chief god of Egypt, there were two columns as in the temple of Solomon. In the oldest myths associated with the sun, two columns are mentioned, named intelligence and power, erected in front of the gate of the entrance to eternity.72


In their book, The Hiram Key, two British Masonic authors, Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas, drew attention to the Ancient Egyptian roots of Masonry. One interesting point they reveal is that the words used in the ceremony in which a Mason is made to rise to the degree of Master Mason are:

Ma'at-neb-men-aa, Ma'at-ba-aa'.73 Knight and Lomas explain that these words are used most of the time without any thought to their meaning, but they are Ancient Egyptian words and mean, "Great is the established Master of Freemasonry, Great is the Spirit of Freemasonry."74

The authors state that the word "Ma'at" means the skill of wall building, and that the nearest translation is "Masonry." This means that modern Masons, thousands of years later, still conserve the language of Ancient Egypt in their lodges.


One of the more interesting products of Masonry is the Magic Flute, an opera by the famous composer, Mozart. Mozart was a Mason, and it is an acknowledged fact that many parts of this opera contain Masonic messages. The interesting matter is that these Masonic messages are closely related to Ancient Egyptian paganism. Mimar Sinan explains it in this way:

It is known that there is a clear connection between Ancient Egyptian and Masonic rituals. No matter how much those who attempted to interpret the Magic Flute as "a story about the Far East," at its foundation are Egyptian rituals. It is the gods and goddesses of the Egyptian temples that influenced the creation of the characters of the Magic Flute.75


Another important symbol of Masonry is what was once an important element in Ancient Egyptian architecture-the obelisk. An obelisk is a tall, vertical tower with a pyramid as its peak. Obelisks were inscribed with Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, and lay buried for centuries under the ground until they were discovered in the nineteenth century, and removed to Western cities such as New York, London and Paris. The largest obelisk was sent to the USA. This exportation was arranged by Masons. This was because obelisks, as well as the Ancient Egyptian figures inscribed on them, are claimed by Masons as being really their own symbols. Mimar Sinan avers this about the 21-meter high obelisk in New York:

The most striking instance of the symbolic use of architecture is the monument called Cleopatra's needle, given to the US as a gift in 1878 by the Egyptian Governer Ismail. This monument is now in Central Park. Its surface is covered with Masonic emblems. This monument was originally erected in the 16th century BC at the entrance to a temple of the Sun god, an initiation center in Heliopolis.76


important symbolic idea in Masonry is that of the widow. Masons call themselves the children of the widow, and pictures of widows often appear in their publications. What is the origin of this idea? Who is this widow?

When we examine Masonic sources, we find that the symbol of the widow derives originally from an Egyptian legend. This legend is one of Ancient Egypt's most important myths-the story of Osiris and Isis. Osiris was a fertility god and Isis was his wife. According to the legend, Osiris was the victim of a crime of passion by which Isis became a widow. So, the Masonic widow is Isis. An article in Mimar Sinan explains the matter in the following way:

The Osiris-Isis legend is the topic of many articles and lectures and is the closest of the Ancient Egyptian myths to Masonry. The test to become a priest of the temple of Isis is the Masonic initiation itself. It would be tedious to have to repeat it. There, light was one of the most important elements; in order to be buried in the darkness of the East, the morning sun begins to descend after noon and takes on Osiris' duty every day, just like Horus who more brilliantly took the place of his murdered father. So, the "widow" whose children we are is none other than Osiris' widow Isis.77

We see that Masonry, which portrays itself as being founded on reason and science, is actually a mythological doctrine full of superstitious beliefs.


Among the most familiar symbols of Masonry is the compass superimposed over a square. If Masons are asked, they explain that this symbol represents the concepts of science, geometric order and rational thinking. However, the compass and square actually has quite a different meaning. We can learn this from a book written by one of the greatest Masons of all time. In his book Morals and Dogma, Albert Pike wrote the following about the compass and square: The square... is a natural and appropriate Symbol of this earth... The hermaphroditic figure is the symbol of the double nature anciently assigned to the Deity, as Generator and Producer, as Brahm and Maya among the Arians, Osiris and Isis among the Egyptians. As the Sun was male, so the Moon was female.78

This means that the compass and square, the most well known symbol of Masonry, is a symbol of Arian paganism and which dates back to Ancient Egypt or before the advent of Christianity. The moon and the sun, in the passage quoted from Pike, are important symbols in Masonic lodges, and are none other than a reflection of the false beliefs of those ancient pagan societies that worshipped the moon and the sun.


So far, we have learned that Masonry's origins lie in a pagan doctrine that stretches back to Ancient Egypt, and that it is there that the true meaning of its concepts and symbols are hidden. For this reason, Masonry is in conflict with the monotheistic religions. It is humanist, materialist and evolutionist. The American historian Michael Howard describes this secret that is only completely revealed to those Masons of the highest degree:

Why should Christians be so critical of Freemasonry…? …[T]he answer to this question lies in the "secrets" of Freemasonry. If these secrets were readily available to the general public it is doubtful if their meaning would be understood to those who were not versed in the doctrines of occultism and ancient religion. In fact it is doubtful if many of the ordinary lodge members understand what its secrets represent. In the inner circle of Masonry, among those who have obtained higher degrees of initiation, there are Masons who understand that they are the inheritors of an ancient and pre-Christian tradition handed down from pagan times.79

When we look at the writing of Turkish Masonry, we see that Masons of the highest degree are in possession of knowledge that they keep hidden from the other brothers. The Master Mason Necdet Egeran describes what higher degree Masons think about this matter:

Some Masons even understand Masonry as only a kind of half religion, half charitable fraternal institution where they can establish pleasant social relationships and treat it accordingly. Others think that the purpose of Masonry is only to make good people better. Still others think that Masonry is a place to build character. In short, those who do not know how to read or write the sacred language of Masonry understand the meaning of its symbols and allegories in this way or some such similar way. But for a few Masons who are able to go deeply into it, Masonry and its goals are quite different. Masonry means a revealed knowledge, an initiation and a new beginning. It means leaving an old way of life and entering a new and still nobler life….Behind Masonry's elementary and basic symbolism there is a series of revelations that helps us to enter a higher inner life and to learn the secrets of our existence. So, it is in this inner life and the entrance into it that it is possible to reach the Enlightenment of Masonry.

Only then does it become possible to learn the nature and conditions of progress and evolution.80 This quotation underlines that though a few Masons of lower degree think that Masonry is a charitable and social organization, it is actually about the secrets of human existence. That is, the outward appearance of Masonry as charitable or social organization is actually a guise to hide the philosophy of the organization. In reality, Masonry is an organization that aims to systematically impose a specific philosophy on its members as on the rest of society.

As we said at the beginning, the fundamental element of this philosophy, one which has transpired to Masonry from pagan cultures, especially that of Ancient Egypt, is materialism.
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Re: Freemasonry and Masonic rituals - Unveiling the Secrets

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Re: Freemasonry and Masonic rituals - Unveiling the Secrets

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History of Freemasonry in Turkey

by Cecil Layiktez

Note: The archives of lodges in Turkey, prior to the foundation of the Grand Lodge in 1909, were in the hands of foreign obediences. These documents were lost due to wars, persecution, fires etc. I was able to reconstruct the history of Freemasonry in Turkey through a research in the archives of the Grand Orient de France, preserved from the Germans during the occupation in the Bibliothèque Nationale Française (1890 pages microfilmed), plus the archives of the Grand Lodges of England, Ireland and Scotland. The Greek and Italian Masonic archives had been destroyed during the German occupation.
1721 – 1826

A lodge which name is lost, operated in Istanbul, somewhere near the Galata tower, during the reign of Osman III (1703 – 1730). The lodge was founded probably around 1721 by Levantines (mainly Genoese people) living in the tower quarters.

The first known Turkish Mason is Sait Çelebi, ambassador to France and later grand vizier. The French officer, Count de Bonneval, after some intrigues in the French Court during the reign of Louis XIV, emigrated to England and later came to Turkey to reorganize the Turkish army. Count de Bonneval took a Turkish name and became Kumbaraci Ahmet Osman Pasha. It is said that he was a mason. Another known mason in this period is Ibrahim Müteferrika, who together with Sait Çelebi, started the first printing press used by Muslim subjects of the Ottoman Empire. (The Christians and Jews already had their own printing presses).

10 years after the excommunication of freemasonry by Clement XII in 1748, Mahmud II came under the pressure from his Christian subjects and also the Muslim clergy to take similar action. It was thought that the Pope would not charge a fraternity with atheism in vain, and freemasonry was outlawed in the Ottoman Empire. An English lodge was sacked by the police, but as the British ambassador gave notice in due time, the list of members had been rescued. In the Vatican archives, there is a letter by the Pope congratulating the French Cardinal Tencin, and wishing that the same could be done in Naples.

According to Gould, Alexander Drummond, the British Consul in Aleppo, had been appointed as District Grand Master for 'the Orient' by the Grand Lodge of England. Later in 1764, Dr. Dionysios Menasse had been appointed District Grand Master for Asiatic Turkey and Armenia.

In 1786 a second charter had been given by the Lodge Saint Jean d’Ecosse in Marseilles to the Lodge Saint Jean d’Ecosse des Nations Réunies in Izmir. The first charter having been lost during the great Izmir fire. According to the correspondence, this lodge had been consecrated after 1751 and before 1778, and was closed in 1826.

In the last decade of the eighteenth century, Selim III’s mother, Nakshidil Sultan happened to be the cousin of Josephine, Napoléon’s wife. Under her influence, lodges from different obediences prospered in the Ottoman Empire. However in 1826, Mahmut II abolished the Janissaries to create a modern army and outlawed the order of the Bektashis to which they belonged. Thus it was possible to describe Freemasonry as a “kind of Bektashism”, and as a consequence it was also closed and the known freemasons were sent into exile.
1826 – 1856

Mustafa Reshit Pasha, Grand Vizier, had promulgated the Reform Edict of 1839. It is said that he had been initiated while he was Ambassador in London although no evidence has been found for his Initiation. His lodge is not known and as there were no 'family names' in usage at that time. Thus any search for the names of Reshit and Mustafa could be anyone of that name (the practice of having fixed names for families was only introduced by Kemal Ataturk in the twentieth century). His good friend the British Ambassador in Istanbul, Lord Reading, was however a known freemason.

After 1839, with the unofficial permission by the Grand Vizier, freemasonry underwent a slow revival in Turkey.
The Crimean War

The arrival of British, French and Piemontise expeditionary forces and diplomats in Istanbul and Izmir in 1856 led to an explosion of lodges under a variety of obediences.

In 1857 the short-lived Grande Loge de Turquie was founded in Izmir by the Grand Orient of France. After the end of the Crimean War, with the departure of foreigners, this grand lodge came to an end.
The creation of an irregular Irish Grand Lodge:

In 1856 Captain Atkinson, an Irish officer in the 47th British Regiment, claiming to possess an Irish warrant created three lodges in Izmir and then “The Grand Lodge of the Ancient and Honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons of TURKEY”. (The constitution of this Grand Lodge is in the Irish archives). This was however a fraudulent commercial enterprise - Atkinson initiated some 200 masons and then disappeared with the funds.
The creation of the District Grand Lodge of Turkey (English Constitution)

The irregular masons started to visit or join English and French lodges. There was literally a panic in London and in a swift move, the Grand Master, Lord Zetland ordered the foundation of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Turkey, in Istanbul. The first Provincial Grand Master being the British Ambassador Sir Henry Bulwer. The consecration ceremony taking place on the 24th June 1862 in the Embassy.
The Supreme Council of Turkey (1861)

The founder (1861) and first Sovereign Commander of the Scottish Rite in Turkey (1864) was Prince Abdülhalim Pasha, or shortly, Halim Pasha, Brother of the Khedive (Governor of Egypt, then part of the Ottoman Empire). Halim Pasha was uncle of the Khedive Ismail Pasha under whose rule the Suez Channel had been opened. Halim Pasha was also Grand Master of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Egypt (English Constitution). In 1869 this Supreme Council was recognised by the American Southern Jurisdiction.
The extinction of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Turkey

In 1869 Lord Bulwer had been recalled to London and at the same time Halim Pasha was in exile in Istanbul. Having good relations with the Sultan, he was proposed as Provincial Grand Master. But as his proficiency of the English language was insufficient, an American, John Peter Brown, Secretary at the American Embassy and known writer and researcher of the Islamic mysticism was elected in his place. Hyde Clark, the P.D. Regional G.M. in a letter to a Bro. Harvey (I could not read his family name) in London, proposes that there would be simultaneously two Grand Masters. This proposition was not carried on for obvious reasons.

After Brown, Bro Stephen Scouloudi was elected Grand Master in 1873. The Provincial Grand Lodge was run inefficiently; dues were not or could not be collected. Thus in 1884 when Scouloudi resigned, no one was elected in his place. At that time there were four English Lodges in Istanbul and seven in Izmir.
Lodges at the end of the 19th Century

At the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries, there were in total 11 English, 7 Scottish, 2 Irish, 1 Polish, 2 Spanish, 5 German, 15 Italian, 2 Greek, 6 French and 1 Hungarian lodges - plus a few chapters attached to the English, Scottish and Irish lodges in Istanbul, Izmir and Thessalonica alone.

{There were many lodges in the rest of the big cities of the Empire too (in the provinces of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Bulgaria, Romania and Macedonia and also in different cities of Anatolia) but as they were not relevant to the creation of the Grand Lodge of Turkey, I did not include them in this study.}
Constitutional Monarchy

Three sons of Sultan Abdulmedjit, the Princes Murat (later Sultan Murat V) and two of his brothers, Nurettin and Kemalettin had been initiated in the French Lodge Prodoos. Five Grand Viziers, including Midhat Pasha who masterminded the first Constitutional Monarchic regime, Turkish ambassadors to European countries and foreign ambassadors to Turkey, famous freedom writers and poets were members of this lodge. Louis Amiable, French Lawyer and politician, writer of the history of the Lodge “les Neufs Soeurs” cradle of the Encyclopedists in Paris before the Revolution, was the Orator of the Lodge. (He was in Istanbul on contract to reorganize the Turkish Bar Association).

After the suicide (?) of Sultan Abdulaziz, Prince Murat acceded to the throne on the 30th May 1876, but due to a mental illness, was deposed three months later and his brother Abdulhamit was enthroned, but only after bargaining with Bro. Midhat Pasha, and promising to start the constitutional process. He was not long to go back on his promise. On the 5th February 1878 Abdulhamit sent Grand Vizier Bro. Midhat Pasha into exile in various places, but finally to Taif (port city of Yemen, then a province of the Ottoman Empire) arranging his death by poisoning there. On the 13th February 1878 Abdulhamit adjourned the parliament indefinitely, starting a period of absolute despotism which lasted 30 years.
Prince Murat.jpg
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Cleanti Scalieri, W.M. of the Lodge Prodoos plotted a bloody but unsuccessful kidnapping of Murat V from the Ciragan Palace, to restore him on the throne. (Articles on the subject by Bro. Rizopoulos and myself in the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum Volumes 104 and 107 respectively
A Masonic political party: Union and Progress, created according to the model of the “Carbonaries” in Italy

After the model of Young Italians, Young Germans and Young Swiss, the Young Turks organized in Paris with the aim of bringing back the constitutional monarchy. But the Young Turks talked a lot but did not act. Five freemason, military students in the faculty of medicine started a revolutionary party that later took the name of Union and Progress. Their model was the Italian quasi-masonic revolutionary society, the “Carbonaries”.

In the second half of the nineteenth century, the main European powers had obtained an immunity for their subjects living in the Ottoman Empire. This immunity system was called “capitulations”. The Turkish police did not have the right to search a house belonging to a foreign subject. Thus the members of Union and Progress in Thessalonica were able to plot their revolution in Italian, French and Spanish lodges gathering in houses belonging to foreigners. To get around the Capitulations, the police organized a robbery in the temple of the lodge Macedonia Risorta, were the archives were kept, to obtain the members’ lists, but a freemason in the police force tipped off the Worshipful Master of the lodge in time. The frustrated policemen took revenge on the furniture of the temple. The police tried also to harass the members by waiting in the street for them to leave the building.
Abdulhamit and freemasons

Abdulhamit knew very well what freemasonry was about. As stated above, three of his brothers were freemasons. The princes Kemalettin and Nurettin were in line for the throne. Most of the European powers were governed by freemason kings and ministers. For these reasons, Abdulhamit did not want to alienate the Freemasons. Therefore, while persecuting the lodge members of the Italian, French and Spanish lodges in Thessalonica, he gave large donations to the charity efforts of English Lodges in Istanbul.

He even planned the creation of a Grand Lodge in Istanbul, of which he would be the Grand Master. This lodge would act as a senate, assembling the leaders of the different warring communities in Istanbul, (mainly Turkish intellectuals, the members of the Italian, Levantine, Greek, Armenian and Jewish communities). This project was never realised but shows the intricacies of the way Abdulhamit’s mind worked.
The Second Constitutional Monarchy

A great number of high ranking officers were Freemasons and as well as being members of the Union and Progress Party, low ranking officers were not required to become Freemasons to be accepted into the Union and Progress Party, but they hoped to get a quicker promotion if they would be initiated first.

The action of the Union and Progress Party, and its threat to invade Istanbul with the armies stationed in Thrace, obliged Abdulhamit to promulgate once more a Constitutional Monarchy on the 23rd July 1908.

The reaction was not long to come. On the 31st March 1909 the fundamentalists took control of Istanbul.

The freemasons in Thrace, mainly from Thessalonica, organised an army of reservists. Almost all officers were freemasons. There were too many officers so some actually joined the expeditionary force as simple soldiers. The army recaptured Istanbul from the fundamentalists, there were bloody battles and hangings, and Abdulhamit was dethroned by a committee of five deputies, all of them Freemasons.

As a result of all this, freemasons became the target for the hatred of fundamentalist Islam.
The Masonic State

According to the French historian Thierry Zarcone, the period from 1908 to 1918 could be called “The Masonic State”. The Union and Progress Party in power used freemasonry in its foreign relations. Deputations of mason parliamentarians went to Italy, France, Hungary and Germany. The freemason deputies claimed that with their effort, democracy, that is the French slogan of liberty, equality and fraternity, was prevailing now in Turkey and that the European powers should be of assistance. The Albanians had revolted against the Ottoman rule and the Italian parliament was about to vote an aid program for the rebels. After the intervention of the Grand Lodge of Turkey, the Italian freemasons in the parliament were effective and the motion failed to be carried.

Eleven months later, at the end of 1911, after Italy’s expedition to Libya (which was Ottoman territory at that time), the same scenario was repeated, but naturally this time the Grand Orient of Italy could not act against its own government. In answer to the letter from the Grand Lodge of Turkey, the Grand Master issued a very general statement on the 29th September 1911 (“Per l’Impresso di Tripoli”, Rivista Massonica, 1911, No. 15-16) and the relations between the Italian And Turkish Grand Lodges were severely affected.
The Creation of the Grand Lodge of Turkey (Ottoman Grand Orient)

On the 3rd March 1909, the dormant Supreme Council of Turkey (1861) was revived. This Supreme Council first consecrated 4 Turkish lodges. These 4 lodges plus 3 Italian, 2 French, 1 Spanish and 2 Egyptian lodges (One of them, Resne, English Constitution) assembled to form the Grand Lodge of Turkey on the 13th July 1909, and elected its first Grand Master, the Minister of the Interior Mehmet Talat S. Pasha, who later became Grand Vizier (Prime Minister). This Grand Lodge was consecrated by the Supreme Council.
The closing of lodges in 1935

This Grand Lodge gave charters to a total of 66 lodges, mainly in Turkey but also in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Greece, Lebanon and Palestine.

In 1935, the year when Freemasonry decided to hibernate, 6 ministers, the President of the Parliament, more than 60 deputies and many state governors, were Freemasons. Ataturk’s private doctor, M. Kemal Oke, was a Past Grand Master.

In 1935 the English, Germans and Russians transformed Turkey into a vast stage for propaganda and espionage. The Nazi propaganda machine was also stressing the Judeo-Masonic danger. The Ministry of the Interior, Sukru Kaya, a 33° Scottish Rite Mason, in order to curb these activities passed a law from parliament closing all clubs and societies. Freemasonry was not mentioned in the text, but the minister warned his brothers that it would be wiser to stop the activity of Freemasonry by its own free will. That’s how things happened and the reason why Freemasonry was able to recover its buildings after the war.

All lodges did not close. The Supreme Council continued its activity behind closed doors, even chartered 3 new lodges. Craft lodges met at the homes of brothers. The police showed a knowing tolerance to all this, with the tacit approval of the President of the Republic Ismet Inonu, who even gave a little financial aid to the Supreme Council.
The awakening (1948)

Turkey wanted to be accepted by the U.N. The Turkish diplomats were told that Turkey was not a democratic nation and that even Freemasonry was closed, as it was in all the totalitarian regimes.

The President approached his personal doctor, Supreme Grand Master M. Kemal Oke, the same doctor who looked after Kemal Ataturk, and told him that the time to resume official working had come.

In 1948 lodges, under the Supreme Council, started to labour in Istanbul and Izmir, and in 1949 in Ankara.

A troubled period started with lodges trying to liberate themselves from the Supreme Council’s rule. The Grand Lodges of Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir were created, and finally those three grand lodges united on the 16th December 1956 to create a totally independent Grand Lodge of Turkey.
International Recognition

After the initial recognition by some American and European Grand Lodges, in 1959 an official deputation by the Grand Lodge of Scotland visited Turkey. The recognition process was delayed to 1963, due to the military coup of 1960.

Most of the regular Grand Lodges had recognised the Grand Lodge of Turkey, except England and Ireland. In order to satisfy them, the Grand Lodge of Turkey was reconsecrated by the Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1965. (That is why our Grand Officers’ regalia is green). In 1970 the Grand Lodges of England and Ireland recognized the Grand Lodge of Turkey.
The schism of 1965

Friction was continuous between the Supreme Council and the Grand Lodge.

At the end of 1964, The Grand Secretary, on his own, gave a letter to Bro. Suleyman Demirel, stating that he (Demirel) was not a freemason. The Grand Secretary was actually the Senior Warden of the lodge in which Demirel had been initiated in 1955. Demirel used this document against the fundamentalist wing in his political party, was thus elected to the Presidency of the party and reigned on Turkish Politics until 2000, when he retired as President of the Republic.

In the 1965 Grand Master elections, the Brother who issued this letter was elected, in spite of the Supreme Council’s secret opposition. The Supreme Council preferred the election of a Brother who would be obedient to them and tried to cancel these elections. This led to a lot of turbulence in the ranks of Turkish Freemasons. Finally a schism occurred, with a small group of brothers creating a separate Grand Lodge, which later attached itself to the French Grand Orient. Today this irregular grand lodge has about 3000 members and is in relations with a Turkish Women’s Grand Lodge. This is a rather new body and has a few hundred members, organized in all major cities in Turkey.

Today the Grand Lodge of Turkey has about 180 lodges in 10 cities, with 12000 active members. It is recognized by all the regular Grand Lodges and is active, promoting freemasonry in the Balkans, Russia and turkic language speaking former Soviet Union republics.

We have a research Lodge that is publishing a quarterly research magazine “Mimar Sinan” (named after Sinan the famous Turkish architect). Since 1991, I have published the bimonthly Masonic magazine TESVIYE (level), in the name of the Grand Lodge of Turkey. ... turkey.htm

Grand Lodge: ... ng/turkey/
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Re: Freemasonry and Masonic rituals - Unveiling the Secrets

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Here you will find the webpage including pictures: ... lars04.htm

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"The roots of Turkish Masonry go back to the middle of the 19th century. Sources on the subject speak of five phases of Masonry in Turkey, the first of these being the period before 1909. A number of lodges were founded during the Ottoman Empire, but could not get properly organized, since Sultan Abdulhamid systematically prevented this. At this stage, the lodges depended on lodges outside of the Empire, who also provided their management.

The second period, between 1909 and 1935, began with the March 31 uprising (April 13, 1909 corresponds to March 31, 1325 in the Muslim calendar) that removed Abdulhamid from the throne and let the Masons become the ruling political power. To reduce opposition from the people, the local lodges, hitherto run from abroad, took on a national identity for the first time in Masonic history. At the beginning of this period, the Committee of Union and Progress (Ittihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti) controlled by Masons came to the forefront.

The third period runs between 1935 and 1948. In 1935, president Ataturk ordered the closure of the lodges, on the grounds that they were destructive institutions run from abroad, and so Masonry entered a period of hibernation. But during these 13 years of "sleep," the Masons continued with their activities in the Halkevi Community Centers.

In the years between 1948 and 1966, Masonic activities intensified, but in two distinct branches: the Scottish and the French rites. The final period began in 1966 and leads up to the present day, wherein the two branches are increasingly more active and better organized.

The Tanzimat Reforms, Mustafa Reshid Pasha, and August Comte

The Masons' first real impact in the Ottoman Empire was felt in 1839, during the Tanzimat ("reorganization" in Turkish) era (1839-1876). Although there had been lodges founded well before that, they were neither effective nor well organized. All this changed, however, with Mustafa Reshid Pasha, Masonry's shining star and known as the architect of the Reform Edict (Tanzimat Fermani).

According to Masonic sources, Mustafa Reshid Pasha made first contact with Masonry in London and was admitted into the order in the 1830s, though which lodge actually admitted him is not known. Of Mustafa Reshid Pasha, the Turkish Masonic journal Mimar Sinan has this to say:

"If, on your path, you have to fight forces more powerful than yourself, you must fight their thoughts relentlessly. If you are positive that your path is the true one, you must proceed, even if you are alone. Never hide your deeds." Was this piece of ritual advice not the Great Mustafa Reshid Pasha's and other brothers' leading principle? Did he not heed this advice, when he took the appeal for his own execution to the Sultan or when he read out the Imperial Edict (Hatti Humayun), standing bolt upright, self-confident and self-conscious, knowing what he was doing and wanted to do and prepared to die for this if necessary? We bow before the memory of the Great Mustafa Pasha, who had been the leading light for the people, and in remembrance of his courageous reading of the Hatti Humayun, 135 years ago in the Gulhane Square.72

In another issue of the journal:

August Comte, a sworn atheist, tried through Masonic links to bring about a break between Ottoman society and its Islamic religion

Great Mustafa Pasha, shaped by Masonry, is a monument of love of country and people. He rests in the loyal bosom of history, content in having received the light of the temple and having lit the way for his homeland.73

But what are the meaning and the consequence of the Reform Edict, of which Mustafa Reshid Pasha was the architect?

Its positive as well as negative consequences have been argued over for more than 150 years. True, the Reform Edict's starting point was the Ottoman Empire's desperate need for reform, since in terms of development it had fallen way behind the Western world. The Reform Edict didn't only kick-start the process of reform, but also imported the materialistic world view then dominant in Europe.

When this subject is examined closely, we see that the European Masons, via the lodge, were bombarding Mustafa Reshid Pasha and other leaders of the Tanzimat movement with propaganda for the materialistic philosophy. In this respect, the famous atheist philosopher August Comte, who was close to Mustafa Reshid Pasha, played an important role. Comte tried to influence the Pasha with his anti-religious positivism and wrote him countless letters filled with atheist, anti-religious content. At one point, the Sultan sacked Mustafa Reshid Pasha as chief minister because of the relationship between the two. One of Comte's letters reads as follows:

Since you have been removed from the office you held so successfully, the free time you now have on hand gives rise to my hope that you will invest time into considering my positivist philosophy, which I present to you in general terms, and the universal positivist political system it will create…

For many hundreds of years the West as well as the East have searched for a universal, unifying religion. Faith in one religion engages the human emotions and gets a hold on them, whereas experience and reason prove that such hope is unfounded. While progressing from Islam to Positivism, without any need for a metaphysical transformation period, Muslims will soon understand the real maintainers of such elevated thoughts as peculiar to their great Prophet who will systematize religious faith and humanitarian understanding with universal victory.

If the Muslims could be distanced from such an unnecessary sense of political unity, they won't feel sad about the Ottoman Empire's inevitable collapse. On the contrary, they will see that their temporary rule actually limited their society's social development. As for the Ottoman chiefs still engaged with the occupation of their lands by lesser nations and the like-once the inevitable takes place, their imaginary fears will disappear and the people will be freed. The political implication of accepting humanitarianism instead of a universally believed God will bring a sense of unity among the people, which Islam's core philosophy so desires. Once the Ottomans replace their faith in God with Humanism, this goal will quickly be attained.74

In his letters to Mustafa Reshid Pasha, Comte recommended that the Ottomans should replace their Islamic religion with the "religion" of positivism and drop their dream of political unity with other Muslim peoples. Comte also recommends replacing God with Humanism-in reality, the same as the Masonic ideology of secular humanism. (For detailed information about secular humanism, see Global Freemasonry by Harun Yahya, Global Publishing, Istanbul, 2003)

It's easy to recognize the irrationality of Comte's advice. God created all people and therefore, they are answerable to Him. The suggestion to drop the Creator in favor of Humanism suggests that people adopt one another as their life purpose. Throughout history, the prophets have fought misleading, misguided philosophies like this.

In reality, Comte and all other leading 19th-century atheists (Darwin, Marx, Freud, Durkheim, etc.) did nothing more than rework old, mistaken beliefs and ideas and present them as new and progressive. To a great extent, Masonry is responsible for the dissemination and acceptance of these beliefs and ideas across Europe and from there, around the globe. Freemasonry has adopted positivism like a religion along with other materialistic philosophies and begun a systematic campaign to impose them first on the intellectual elite, then on the masses in general.

Masonry's activities in the Ottoman Empire and later in Turkey must be considered from this perspective. The lodge acted like a propaganda machine, making the fight against religion its mission. When different phases of Masonry's history in Turkey are examined, an interesting picture emerges.

Young Turks, the Committee of Union and Progress, and Freemasons:

In the 19th century, the Masons "exported" their materialist-humanist philosophies to other countries. The above Masonic drawing illustrates their philosophy enlightening other nations. Notice that the Ottoman nation (bottom left) is among them.

After the Tanzimat period came the first Constitutional Period (I. Mesrutiyet) (1876-1878). On February 14, 1878, Abdulhamid sacked the Constitutional government and ruled the nation directly until the second constitutional government was declared in 1908. Some historians have therefore chosen to portray this era as a dictatorship. The truth is different, however.

Sultan Abdulhamid inherited an Empire at the verge of collapse. With skill and balanced diplomacy, he not only kept the Empire alive, but prevented warfare and bloodshed between 1876 and 1909. He reformed many areas of the Ottoman government, including the institutions of justice, education, and the military. During his reign, the Dar-ul-Funun (The House of Sciences) was established and later became the University of Istanbul.

His government built the foundations of the railway system and the infrastructure of telegraphy. The generation that was to establish the Republic of Turkey, including Ataturk, received its education in the modern schools Abdulhamid had built. Claims that his regime was "bloody" are baseless and unfair, considering that not even his fiercest enemies were sentenced to death, but instead were exiled.

The real reason for the hostile propaganda against him was that he was a devout Muslim, ruling his Empire according to Islamic morality.

The opposition facing him during the 40-odd years of his rule was the Young Turks. Theirs was not a united front with a common ideology-some of them actually held religious values. Most Young Turks believed that the way forward for the Ottoman Empire was to adopt Western philosophies and systems. Most were well-meaning and hoped to save the Empire but history was to prove their ideology faulty soon enough. The Young Turks did succeed in bringing down Abdulhamid's government, but their own lasted only ten years, during which time the Empire disintegrated. One fraction within this movement was the Union and Progress Party. They were in charge from 1910 onwards and became the Empire's ruling party in 1913. But simply opposing Abdulhamid was not sufficient to improve the situation in the Empire.

Masonic elements within the Young Turks' movement and the Union party were responsible for their wholesale adoption of Western philosophies, ideologies and systems. An article in the Paris daily Le Temps on August 20, 1908, based on an interview with Mr. Refik and Colonel Niyazi - two Union party members in Thessalonica - reveals the extent of the Masons' influence on the movement:

The journalist conducting the interview asked the extent of the aid received from Masonry between 1905 and 1908. Their answer to this question is interesting. "Masonry, especially Italian Masonry, supported us. Many lodges in Thessalonica were active. In practice, the Italian lodges helped the Committee of Union and Progress and protected us. Because most of us were Masons, we met in the lodges, and this was where we were trying to recruit. Istanbul became suspicious and managed to introduce a few agents into the lodges."75
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With the Ottoman Empire on the verge of disintegration, Sultan Abdulhamid ruled successfully for 40 years. His rational policies and the reforms he introduced laid the foundations for modern Turkey.

Some of the achievements of Abdulhamid's era: The opening of the Baghdad rail link, the founding of the Dar-ul-Funun (today's University of Istanbul), and the construction of the Haydarpasha train station.

After the declaration of the second Mesrutiyet (Parliamentary Monarchy), a British MP and the founder of the Balkans Committee, Roden Buxton visited Istanbul and recorded that the initiation ceremony of the committee of Union and Progress was an identical copy of the Freemasons':

Candidates who wanted to be admitted to the Committee of Union and Progress were informed that they were about to be told a great secret. After their trustworthiness was established, they were made to swear an oath. Then the initiation stage began. The candidates were blindfolded and taken to another chamber, where the blindfolds were removed. The candidates found themselves in semi-darkness, facing three hooded strangers. Here they were required to put their hand on a sword and swear an oath of absolute secrecy and to kill anyone who committed treachery against the party, even if it were a friend or relative.76

Prominent Turkish journalist Ilhami Soysal writes about the relationship between Masonry and the Committee of Union and Progress:

The Macedonia Rizorta lodge and the Veritas [Latin for "Truth"] lodge in Thessalonica where the Turks were a minority to begin with, gradually became the meeting and recruiting center of the Committee of Union and Progress, then eventually came under their control.

The leaders of the Committee of Union and Progress-Talat Pasha, Mithat Sukru Bleda, Kazim Pasha, Manyasizade Refik, Kazim Nami Duru, Colonel (later MP for Mus) Naki, Drama Gendarmerie Commander Huseyin Muhittin, Financial Controller Ferit Aseo-belonged to the Macedonian Rizorta lodge. Emmanuel Karasu, Cemal Pasha, Faik Suleyman Pasha, Ismail Canbolat, Hodja Fehmi Efendi, Mustafa Dogan, Mustafa Necip (later shot dead during the raid on the Babiali), were all illuminated at the Veritas lodge. Talat Pasha, who was to become Prime Minister, and Colonel Naki were active in both the Veritas and Macedonian Rizorta lodges.77

A photograph of the first Young Turks Congress, held in Paris

While these activities in Thessalonica continued, Abdulhamid was anticipating great danger from the Masons and tried to contain the Masonic lodges. He had organized a network of informers to report the activities taking place in the lodges.

Grand Master Kemalettin Apak relates the events of that period, from his perspective:

Sultan Abdulhamid II was afraid of the Masons. He systematically persecuted and tried to contain the Freemasons, nor was he wrong in being afraid of Masonry. Honorary Mason Sultan Murad V passed away in 1904, relieving Abdulhamid of one of his nightmares. A few years later a new movement, in which the Rumelia Masons played an important part, brought freedom and light to the nation's firmament. Those who forced Abdulhamid to accept and declare the Second Parliamentary Monarchy in 1908 were all Masons ...

Abdulhamid wasn't persecuting Masonry in Istanbul and leaving us alone here [in Thessalonica]. His agents were at work here [Rumelia] too. Especially in Thessalonica, the undercover officers were watching the lodges and recording the people's comings and goings. But his influence and might weren't the same here as in Istanbul, because Thessalonica, Kosovo and Manastir were under the foreigners' control.78

In short, Masonry played an active role in the last half century of the Ottoman Empire and the conflict between Abdulhamid and the Young Turks. The Masons, siding with the Young Turks, became powerful within the movement. Masonry was a serious influence in politics and, to the detriment of Turkish people, they imposed their European brothers' materialistic philosophies as a lasting influence.

We will examine one example to see the extent of Masonry's materialistic philosophy.

Abdullah Cevdet: An Anti-Religious Mason of the Ottoman Era

Abdullah Cevdet, one of the founders of the Committee of Union and Progress, was an early leader of Turkey's anti-religion movement. He had formulated a worldview that he hoped would break the link between society and religion. According to him, any modern society should be founded on an anti-religious culture. Since Islam was preventing progress, it should be excluded from social life.

Abdullah Cevdet made his name in the founding of the Union and Progress Committee. He had been greatly influenced by the views of Mason Ibrahim Temo, a fellow founder of the Committee and took his first steps towards materialism by reading the books that Temo gave him: Felix Isnard's Spiritualism and Materialism and Louis Büchner's Force et Matiére (Force and Matter). Later he confronted strong opposition from religious circles for his article on biological materialism.79

Darwin's theory of evolution also made a great impact on Cevdet, and he was also influenced by eugenics, popular with European racists of the time. The Tanzimat'tan Cumhuriyet'e Turkiye Ansiklopedisi (Turkish Encyclopedia from the Reform Edict Period to the Republic) writes the following about Cevdet's views:

Another aspect of Abdullah Cevdet's biological materialism is its theoretical clarity in the creation of a social élite. Ernest Haeckel's theory on inequality in the evolutionary process and Darwin's natural selection theory, made Abdullah Cevdet believe it was possible for some men to develop to a higher level of intellect by means of education, and that social progress can be achieved only under the leadership of such an élite.80

In 1903, Cevdet began Ictihat magazine, in which he published articles against Islam and the Prophet Mohammed (may God bless him and grant him peace). In February 1909, with the aid of Masonry, he established the Ictihat Evi Publishing House. But the books Cevdet published were received by the public with such hostility that first the publishing house, then the magazine Ictihat were forced to close down. His subsequent prosecution and sentencing made the newspapers with words like these:

"A warning to the transgressors of our religion:For denigrating the religion of Mohammed in one of his articles, Abdullah Cevdet has been sentenced to two years' imprisonment."81

Soon after the closure of Ictihat, he began to publish the Istihat, Ishad and Cehd magazines and also worked as the editor of the Hak and Ikdam newspapers. On numerous occasions, he received warnings from the Sheikh ul-Islam, the the Ottoman Empire's highest religious authority, for his anti-Islamic articles.

He aided the process in which Abdulhamid was removed from the throne but, fearing for his safety, didn't return to Turkey for many years. When he finally did, he was appointed to the office of Director for General Health. But here too, his views managed to offend. When he began to issue certificates permitting prostitution, members of society protested, and he had to be relieved of his post.

Abdullah Cevdet has written and translated 70 books. His strongest anti-religion propaganda is contained in one he translated from the French, full of 19th-century atheist theories and titled Akli Selim (Common Sense). In the foreword to this book, Abdullah Cevdet worships humanist "idols" like freedom and virtue, writing that:

Akli Selim (common sense) is a holy rebellion, and the flames of its love are burning in our hearts and can never be extinguished. Prometheus is not on the mountains of the Caucasus, but in our hearts, and his chains are broken. Our god is virtue, but virtue is not possible without freedom. The most valued freedoms are the freedoms of thought and faith. The subject of this translation is service and worship-service and worship to the god of freedom.82

Abdullah Cevdet was studying the French materialists and was greatly influenced by Gustave Le Bon. In line with his master's theories, he developed a project titled "Project to the effect of improving the Turkish race by use of breeding males."

It is interesting to observe that Cevdet, who came from a devoutly religious family, spent his life fighting religion. He was the most radical representative of a generation poisoned with Masonic teachings and upon his death, he didn't receive the traditional Islamic funeral ceremony. Historian Konyali Ibrahim Hakki recounts Cevdet's funeral:

Abdullah Cevdet said that he did not believe in God. He was strongly opposed to the Islamic-Arabic letters [and] was continually writing or speaking against Islamic values. His coffin was brought to the Hagia Sophia Mosque, where the Imams refused to give him an Islamic funeral. Eventually, his coffin was removed by the borough council.83

Halkevi Community Centers, Village Institutes, and the Imposition of Masonic Teachings on the Masses

After the founding of the Turkish Republic, the Masons penetrated the CHP (Republican People's Party) and began to get organized within. In 1935 Ataturk was informed of these activities and ordered the closure of the lodges, but the Masons moved into organizations like the Halkevi Community Centers and the Village Institutes. And their philosophy lived on.

The establishment of the Halkevi Community Centers was trusted to Dr. Resit Galip, the Mason chief judge of the Ankara Istiklal Court that had sent many innocent men to the gallows. In one of his speeches before the Turkish parliament (TBMM) about the launching of Halkevi Community Centers, he claimed that Islam could not be the guiding principle for Turkey. As Dr. Anil Cecen, the owner of the Halkevleri journal relates:

Dr.Resid Galip said that the national goal of the Turkish nation had now changed, Islamism and Ottomanism would no longer be the national goals, the Turkish nation's new goal was to take the place it deserved towards being a part of the modern civilization; that after the drought in Middle Asia, Turks in all parts of the world were seeking to attain civilization; and that in certain periods of history, the Turks had established the highest levels of science and civilization...84

Another immediately recognizable name involved with the Halkevi Centers is Sukru Kaya, a Mason and Minister of the Interior at the time. In the foreword to Behcet Kemal Caglar's book 1935 Halkevi, Kaya wrote:

To understand the Halkevi Centers' cultural, social and economic benefits in such a short time, it is enough to study the statistics recorded in this book. The Halkevi Centers cater to the educational, social developmental and entertainment needs of society. Every citizen there teaches what he knows and learns what he doesn't. Every Turkish intellectual owes his knowledge to the nation's rather than his own effort. No office, no achievement, and no civil servant can fully repay his debt to the nation.85

By 1934, the number of Halkevi Centers had reached 103, and their village subsidiaries (called Halkodalari) 4,322. The members numbered 55,000 and by that time, more than two million had been "educated" in Masonic ideals.

In 1935, when Ataturk closed down the lodges, the Masons didn't seem to be too bothered about it. Interior Minister Sukru Kaya, one of the most senior Masons of the era, told members of the press that since the Halkevi Centers were fulfilling the functions of the lodges anyway, he didn't mind this development.

In his book Turkiye'de Masonluk Tarihi (Masonic History in Turkey), Grand Master Kemalettin Apak phrases it like this:

In the meeting of 33rd degree Masons, Brother Sukru Kaya stated that the Halkevi and Halkodasi Centers have practically been carrying out Masonry's social and cultural activities for a long time. The party considered it necessary for the lodges to rest these activities, and the government had to oblige and put this decision into effect.86

Hasan Ali Yucel, education minister and Mason, used the Village Institutes to impose the Masonic philosophies on the masses.

In other words, according to Sukru Kaya, the lodges and the Halkevis were representatives of the same philosophy.

Over the years, the Halkevi project was developed further with the introduction of the Village Institute, which covered a wider spectrum of activities. Formed by Education Minister and Mason Hasan Ali Yucel, the Village Institute was disseminating the Masonic philosophy among the population just like the Halkevi.

This philosophy's real core message became apparent in 1945 when the Hasanoglu Village Institute in Ankara began to publish the magazine Koy Enstituleri, which openly attacked the religion of Islam and its values, as well as with "between the lines" articles. In one issue of the magazine, Ismail Hakki Tonguc, an author with Marxist sympathies, writes:

Let's hope that tomorrow's world won't have a faith looking to heaven for salvation and living off metaphysical ideas. If we want this new world to rest upon solid foundations, we must give the people a new, comprehensive religion of a humanist, realist and rational nature, free of greed and lies… The Village Institute has tried to save from scholastic dogma the children it has educated.87

Hollow terms like humanist, rational, realist, and new are the same ones used by the Masonic philosophy of secular humanism.

Among the Village Institute's publications were poems by Nazim Hikmet that defend materialist philosophy and consist of lines intended to lead students to deny God; also stories in which religion and its values were mocked. They even relied on the views of Ethem Nejat and Mustafa Suphi, members of the first steering committee of the secret Communist Party.

Peyami Safa, a leading author of the time, wrote an article about the Village Institute's Marxist propaganda:

Not one Turkish intellectual isn't aware that the Village Institutes are Communist propaganda centers where children learn the poems of Nazim Hikmet, where Marxist conferences are given, and where Marxist articles are published. Radio Moscow regularly praises graduates of the Village Institute. Only recently, the high school teacher sentenced to imprisonment for being caught in the act of Marxist propaganda in the school, was not a graduate of Philology-as he had stated on his application form-but was from the Village Institute.

If closing the Village Institutes is the victory of the dark forces, does it follow that these institutes, likened to the 30th August victory, were representing the victory of the Red forces? Does it follow that if it's not Red, it must be dark? Are the free nations ... also the dark nations?

According to this false logic and the voices from Moscow, the new teacher schools that have replaced the Village Institute are also "dark" teacher schools, because Marx is not praised here, Moscow's agent Nazim Hikmet's records are not played and his poems not read. Villagers who have the same rights and responsibilities as the townspeople are not considered a separate class, and the national unity is not split and rearranged into social classes.88

When this systematic Marxist propaganda from the Village Institutes hit the news, the public put great pressure on the TBMM. Criticism could be heard even from the members of the CHP. Education Minister Hasan Ali Yucel was sacked and replaced by R. Semsettin Sirer, who ordered an investigation into this affair. Here are some excerpts from the report his assistants prepared, which became a source of embarrassment:

Thanks to their materialistic content, the poems of Marxist poet Nazim Hikmet had a special place in the publications of the Village Institutes.

Document 1 - 12: In the years between the founding of the institute and 1947, girls were frequently harassed by their teachers. This document, signed by ministry inspector Ziya Karamuk, disciplines committee members and head teachers, further establishing that girls were forcefully kissed, fondled, molested and in some cases, forced into sexual intercourse. Some teachers had to marry these girls by the force of law.

Document 2 - 13: On a number of occasions, boys and girls were caught in the act in the dormitories or on the nearby Kalayci area.

Document 3 - 14: A village schoolteacher, himself a graduate from the Village Institute, molested and then raped a girl from his class ... it is proven that students who witness the practices of their teachers, adopt the same unethical practices after their graduation.

This report offers still more examples of unacceptable practices. Besides the harassment of girls under the name of sexual freedom, all-night drinking sessions between teachers and students are recorded. Document 47 states that "filthy" propaganda was endemic in word and print, and that The Village Institute Magazine encouraged these unethical sexual practices which in some cases, even led to incest.

Ministry of Education chief investigator Fethi Isfendiyaroglu states that:

Village Institutes were built in remote areas, away from towns and villages. This separated students and their parents created an environment well suited for the unethical suggestions and practices of teachers devoid of morals and patriotism. More than 40,000 villagers were being conditioned and exposed to left-wing propaganda and suggestions of sexual freedom. Consequently, some of the weaker students were poisoned with this filth. Fortunately, most village students were of solid character and thus endured the Village Institute practices without coming to harm, left with their decency and morality intact, and developed hostility towards the these institutions' practices and propaganda.89

Moral degeneration of the people by the atheist, materialistic propaganda was part of the Masons' strategy. For years, Masonic writers and journalists kept protesting the closure of these Village Institutes by writing articles in their support and demanding they be reinstituted. An article in the Mason Dergisi (Mason Magazine) praises the Village Institute:

The education policies required that the curriculum be of a universal, humanist, secular and of positivist nature. Religious education had been abolished. The rural population's education was one of the biggest policy problems facing the Republic of Turkey. There was urgent need to create an effective education system to train sufficient numbers of teachers aware of the need for development and progress within the village population, for methods and practical solutions to achieve the goals of educating the huge rural population, and also to implant a sense of belonging and patriotism among the rural community. The Village Institute was founded for this purpose and, in my opinion, became the grandest education project in the history of Turkey.90

The same article refers to the Halkevis as "the product of a missionary mentality." This "mission" was obviously victory in the ongoing Masonic war against religion since the times of the Templars.

The Masons' War Against Religion:

Islamic scholar Bediuzzaman Said Nursi was one of Turkish Masonry's main targets

As the preceding chapters established, Masonry has traditionally represented the anti-religious front. The Templars, having left Christianity and adopted deranged teachings, then engaged in their historic war against Christianity. Over the centuries, the war against religion in Europe has been fought under the leadership of Freemasonry, heir to the Templars, operating in Turkey and actively trying to impose positivist and materialistic philosophies on the masses to encourage anti-religious sentiments.

We can read the Masons' antagonistic views on religion, including their recommended action plan, in articles printed in their own publications. For instance, one says,

"For as long as the Madrasahs [religious schools] and the Minarets are not destroyed and the scholastic ideas and dogmatic beliefs not eliminated, the captivity of thought and suffering in the conscience will continue."91

From the words of Grand Master Haydar Ali Kermen, Masonry's dislike of religious institutions becomes obvious:

The totally improper screeching calls to prayer from mosques in the vicinity of the Parliament, are nothing but a scream saying, "I'm not dead and I'm not going to die." They should be understood as a wake-up call to all intellectuals of this nation and a call to duty.92

The Islamic call to prayer is a "screeching" reminder to the Masons, calling them to duty. To silence the religion that's declaring "I'm not dead" is their greatest duty.

The Masons, fearing that Islam would again be "the loudest and strongest voice in the land," have continued their war of propaganda against religion. This war actually began in the 14th century with the Templars in Europe, and the Masonic organization continues to fight it with oppressive policies around the globe, as well as in Turkey.

As examined in previous chapters, the Templar-Masonry organization engages in illegal activities for political and economical gain, and Turkish Masons operate along the same lines as their foreign brothers.

P-2s of Turkey: Secret Lodges

One of Masonry's unchanged, fundamental principles is secrecy, concealing their activities since the times of the Templars, who successfully hid their real activities behind the façade of a religious Christian order, while worshipping an idol named Baphomet; having left Christianity for a self-made faith of a perverse nature, engaging in abnormal sexual practices, and managing to keep secret that they were de facto enemies of Christ. Masonry inherited their tradition of secrecy and created the image of a charitable cultural and ethical organization with no political interests. But the importance Masonry attaches to secrecy contradicts this. Why would an innocent charitable foundation have such a strict policy of secrecy?

In an article in Mimar Sinan, Mason Uner Birkan writes that,

"Masonry too can take an interest in social affairs, thereby presenting itself as a charitable organization."100

To some extent, the methods of secrecy Masonry employs to cover up its real activities are explained in Masonic publishing. For example the Anderson's Constitutions (sort of a constitution of Freemasonry), under the subsection "Of Behavior," reads as follows:

You shall be cautious in your Words and Carriage, that the most penetrating Stranger shall not be able to discover or find out what is not proper to be intimated.101

A Masonic lodge decorated with pagan symbols of ancient Egypt. Note the Templars' cross embroidered on the chair on the left side.

Masonic lodge.jpg
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Another Masonic lodge decorated with symbols of ancient Greece and pagan Rome.

The Masonic journal Sakul Gibi (Like a Plummet) explains this rule:

Bees cannot work unless in darkness…Your left hand must not know what your right hand does. Symbols are effective in the countless purposes of secrecy, and also in greater things.102

The Mason Dergisi (Masonic Magazine) for March 1993 states, "it is strictly forbidden to talk about ritualistic activities outside the lodge." In Issue 11 of Buyuk Sark (Grand Orient), another Masonic publication, it says,

"It is wholly unethical to reveal the symbols and things done and discussed in the lodge; it is treachery against the cause and oath of Freemasonry."

The Masons' "secrecy oath" proves the importance of absolute discretion within the organization. The second-degree apprentice rite goes like this:

I promise and swear that I will always heel, ever conceal, and never reveal any of the secret arts, parts or points of the hidden mysteries of Freemasonry, which may have been heretofore, shall be at this time, or any future period communicated to me as such, to any person or persons whomsoever, except it be to a true and lawful brother Mason, or within a regularly constituted Lodge of such, and not unto him or them, until by strict trial, due examination, or legal information, I shall have found him or them as lawfully entitled to the same as I am myself.

I furthermore promise and swear that I will not write, print, paint, stamp, stain, cut, carve, mark or engrave them, or cause the same to be done, upon anything movable or immovable, capable of receiving the least impression of a word, syllable, letter or character, which may become legible or intelligible to any person under the canopy of heaven, and the secrets of Freemasonry thereby unlawfully obtained through my unworthiness.103

A Masonic lodge in America, dominated by oriental motifs

What secret are the Masons are so sensitive about?

The answer to this question was revealed by the P-2 Lodge in Italy. Behind a front of a charitable and ethical organization, they were engaged in illegal activities for political and economical gain.

But other lodges doing so are not visible. Again, lodges are separated into two categories: known lodges and the secret ones like the P-2. Unlike the usual lodges, these have no known addresses, and are disguised so that you can't see their existence. For this purpose, the P-2 occupied part of Licio Gelli's villa, which was located in a remote area. Italy's famous politicians, bureaucrats, businessmen and media bosses couldn't have attended the P-2's lodge meetings without secrecy, for otherwise, the organization would soon have been discovered.

The secret of Turkey's P-2 lies hidden in this fact: Only a small part of the Freemasonry's activities are known officially and in the public domain. There are a number of officially well-known lodges in Istanbul's Nuru Ziya street and in Tepebasi, but the organizational brain lies hidden in the secret lodges, hidden away where no one would suspect them - in the cellars of mansions belonging to the Grand Masters, in secret bunkers under factories and the headquarters of large holding companies, accessed through entrances concealed behind mirrored glass and wardrobe doors.

The secret members of these lodges can thus look as if they were attending a business meeting or simple social gathering among friends without drawing attention. The highest-ranking Turkish Masons belong to these lodges and frequently receive their fellow brothers from Tel-Aviv, Chicago, or Paris to share decisions taken by the international lodges and coordinate future actions with their local brothers in Turkey. If these lodges were investigated, a number of documents would be found confirming their connections and illegal activities.

Recently, some of the strange rites taking place in these lodges caught the attention of the media. These rites prove that the forbidden Templars live on in Turkey today and practice the same perverted rituals as they did six centuries ago.

Footage from the Lodge: Templars' Secret Rites on the Screen

1997 was a hard year for the Masons. Footage filmed inside two separate lodges by hidden cameras was shown on Channel 7 of Turkey repeatedly for days. The scenes captured shocked the Turkish people as well as the Grand Masters of Freemasonry. Some footage recorded the Satan-worshipping rite that can be practiced only at the 33rd degree Grand Master level.

The Grand Master conducting the ritual was drinking the blood of a goat killed in the middle of the lodge, and ending the ceremony by offering prayers in Hebrew to Satan. In another scene, as part of a Masonic ritual, two new Masons had swords pushed against their chests and were threatened with death. In yet another scene filmed in the same lodge, a Masonic "marriage ceremony" was being conducted - something that Freemasonry had always denied as non-existent.

After the airing of this footage, Freemasonry made the center of the news for days. Some newspapers and magazines had also obtained relevant material. Some of the media coverage read:

The 7th of January, Monday. It's the 19:00 hours news on Channel 7. The main news stories of the day are listed, one after the other, and then the bomb is dropped: footage of rites showing Masons of the 33rd degree. What the Masons are, who they serve, and what kind of activities they engage in, is known but, because of their policy of total secrecy, cannot be exposed. But that's exactly what is being done on the screen!

Shocking scenes of a lodge that only the highest-ranking bureaucrats and other select personalities can attend. Music playing, Satan worship, white robes, swords, a six-pointed star and a slaughtered goat. The blood of the goat fills a bowl; its head is burned on a spit, to the Hebrew prayers of the Grand Master.

These strange scenes took place in the middle of Turkey, in Istanbul. Oaths of a strange and confusing content:

"Honorable Kadosh Knights, if you break your oath, may your body be torn to pieces by wild horses [and] turned to ashes, the ashes blown away by winds blowing from the four directions…"

Channel 7 had penetrated the most secret of secret societies and, presumably, were expecting to get the credit for achieving this "world's first." But they were stunned at the silence of the mainstream Turkish media. Instead of basking in the glory of this incredible journalistic achievement, they were perplexed by the silence that greeted it. No other channel aired the footage; no newspaper gave it any columns. Total silence. With the practice of getting married by the Imam in the current headlines, the Masonic marriage ritual should have been of interest.

The footage shot by Channel 7 with a hidden camera actually explains the reason for this silence:
Masons recorded

Freemasonry's initiation ceremony is almost like a religious ritual. Candidates are made to wait in a chamber that the camera could not enter, and then have to bend down so as to pass under a bar. While blindfolded, they feel a sword thrust against their chest and are asked to touch it. "If you reveal what you have learned here, you will bear the consequences." The message is clear. When the blindfold is removed, before they do or say anything, all the brothers facing them make the cut-throat sign.104

For days now, Channel 7 is airing footage of Freemasonry. This is a journalistic first... Via the secret camera, footage of a Masonic lodge's initiation ritual is made public. The Masonic front, despite being asked to respond by the media, keeps total silence. Though scenes from inside the oldest and most secretive sect in European history are being aired by Channel 7, no other TV channel takes up the subject. Despite the incredible scenes in the footage, no reaction, no response, nothing. The media ignores the whole thing… Could the oath of secrecy taken by the new recruits on acceptance into the lodge-who go on to become influential and important personalities-be playing a role in this media blackout?105

After the Masons' spectacular TV debut, two former Masons who had left the lodge years ago - Mumin Kilic and Onder Aktac - went in front of the cameras to make statements about the dirty practices of Masonry. This issue was also discussed in the Turkish Parliament. Tokat MP Ahmet Fevzi Inceoz requested that the Interior Ministry begin an inquiry into Masonic lodges. Based on the footage shown on TV he reasoned:

As seen in the footage, the Masonic Society threatens national security and interests. In these lodges, citizens are threatened, illegal marriage ceremonies are conducted, and monies are collected and spent, and unlicensed weapons kept. They operate outside the control and regulations of the security forces, maintain their operational headquarters outside the country, clearly represent a threat to the state-and must therefore be closed down.

But to no avail. The Masons didn't respond in any way, and the media they control kept quiet about the affair. Thus the media moved on to other themes and subjects. Today's Templars, still addressing each other as "Kadosh Knights" managed once more to remain underground as they had for centuries.

The Templars and the Mafia

To understand the Masonic activities in one country, one can take a look at another and draw comparisons. Since Masonry is an international organization operating everywhere under the same rules and principles, scandals in one country can provide insights into what might be going on in another.

One enlightening example shows the close relationship between the Italian Masons and the Mafia. The P-2 investigation revealed that the two are very much interlinked, and the Italian prosecutors' "Clean Hands" operation of the 1990s, while managing to clear up the Mafia to some extent, proved the links between it and Masonry. The parliamentary commission in charge of the Mafia investigation (Commissione Parlamentare Antimafia) said in its report:

The fundamental terrain on which the link between Cosa Nostra [Mafia] with public officials and private professions was created and reinforced is the Massoneria [Freemasonry]. The Massoneria bond serves to keep the relationship continuous and organic. The admission of members of Cosa Nostra, even at high levels, in Massoneria is not an occasional or episodical one, but a strategic choice. . . Massoneria associations offer the mafia a formidable instrument to extend their own power, to obtain favors and priveleges in every field: both for the conclusion of big business and "fixing trials", as many collaborators of justice have revealed.106
Turkish Masonic lodges.jpg
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Turkish Masonic lodges are subordinate to lodges in Tel-Aviv, Chicago and Paris and follow directives according to the chain of command.

What is the situation like in Turkey, a country with cultural, historical and sociological similarities to Italy? Is the relationship between Mafia and Masonry the same as in Italy? In recent years, Turkish government officials have given some answers to this question while investigating the Susurluk Case, which revealed the country's politician-Mafia-police relationship.

After a traffic accident, it was discovered that a deputy, Istanbul's police chief, and a man implicated in various terrorist attacks and sought by the local police and the Interpol for more than a decade were travelling in the same car. Based on the yields of the Turkish Parliament Susurluk Commission's inquiry, MP Hayrettin Dilekcan made this statement:

In Italy, they had the P-2 Lodge. We can now say that something similar to the P-2 exists in Turkey ... To call the present case a Mafia scandal would not do it justice. You cannot call the P-2 case a simple Mafia affair. The lodges are ruling in Turkey. If some people want to take a serious position, the decisions about it are made in the lodges.

For as long as these lodges cannot be overcome, Turkey will not progress easily… In the P-2 case, the lodge was in effect "appointing" the Prime Minister and the ministers… In Turkey, they have reached the level of power and influence where they determine the leaders of political parties. The rest I leave to your imaginations.107

Knights Templars in Jerusalem (opposite page). A model of Jerusalem, as it was when the Temple of Solomon was first built.

MP and spokesman of the Susurluk Commission, Bedri Incetahtaci:

We now have in Turkey something we cannot ascribe a name to. But the Gladio affair in Italy-where there was a state within the state and behind that, there was the lodge-will help us find a name for what we have in our own country. We know that this organization exists, and we also know the things they have done. There are similarities between theirs and ours…108

In short, the investigating commission found strong evidence that the lodge was the organizing force behind these cases and reported this in their conclusive papers.

Opposite page:. An engraving depicting the construction of Solomon's Temple. Centuries later, the Knights Templar settled down on this temple's ruins. The right illustration depicts the architects and master builders presenting plans of the Temple to Solomon .

Even though the Order of Knights Templar was founded with Christian intentions, after settling on Jewish land, it soon gave in to worldly temptations. Templars adopted the Jewish traditions of amassing gold and silver and founded the first usury and racketeering network, reaching from the Middle East to Europe. No single king could match the Templars' power or wealth. Their greed, weakness for debauchery, their dark and secretive way of life became increasingly noticeable. Revelations of their intrigues and perverse practices became common knowledge, leading to opposition and eventually to their end.

An old view of the holy city of Jerusalem, home to many historic events and civilizations

Behind the corruption, injustices and persecution of innocent people in Turkey are the modern day Knights Templars or, if you prefer, the Masons. They are manipulating the country for their political and economical purposes, and in order to achieve their goals they never hesitate to adopt dark and dirty methods. And all the religious voices who oppose Masonry and their philosophy are targeted, slandered, pressurized and persecuted."

72 Mimar Sinan (A Turkish Mason Magazine), no. 15 pp. 105-106.
73 Mimar Sinan, no. 5, p. 94.
74 From the original text of the book Tanzimat Edebiyatina Fransiz Edebiyati Tesiri (The Effect of French Literature on Tanzimat Literature) by Cevdet Perin
75 Resat Atabek, Mimar Sinan, no. 60 p. 9.
76 Buxton, Turkey in Revolution, London 1909; Mustafa Yalcin, Jon Turklerin Seruveni (The Adventure of Young Turks), Ilke Publishing, 1994, Istanbul, p. 123.
77 Ilhami Soysal, Dunyada ve Turkiye'de Masonluk ve Masonlar (Freemasonry and Freemasons in Turkey and in the World), Der Publications, Istanbul, 1980, 3rd. ed., pp. 235-236.
78 Turkiyede'ki Masonluk Tarihi (The History of Freemasonry in Turkey), Kemalettin Apak pp. 34-35.
79 Sukru Hanioglu, Dr. Abdullah Cevdet ve Donemi, (Dr. Abdullah Cevdet and His Period), p. 21.
80 Tanzimattan Cumhuriyete Turkiye Ansiklopedisi, (Encyclopedia of Turkey from the Tanzimat Period to the Republican Period), v. 2, p. 368.
81 Tevhid-i Efkar (A Turkish Journal), April 21, 1922.
82 Abdullah Cevdet, Akli Selim (A Turkish Journal).
83 Yeni Nesil (A Turkish Journal), November 15, 1983.
84 Doc. Dr. Anil Cecen, Halkevleri, p. 115.
85 Behcet Kemal Caglar, Halkevleri, 1935, p. 1.
86 Kemalettin Apak, Turkiye'de Masonluk Tarihi (The History of Freemasonry in Turkey).
87 Mehmet Basaran, Koy Enstituleri (Village Institutes), p. 32.
88 Tercuman (A Turkish Daily), April 23, 1960.
89 Havadis (A Turkish Daily), July 23, 1960.
90 Mason Dergisi (Masonic Journal), January 1995, no. 93, p. 30.
91 Ulku Muht. Mahfili 1952-1953, Suha Selcuk Printing House.
92 Buyuk Ustad Haydar Ali Kermen Hatirasi Brosuru (A Turkish Booklet), Birlik Tek:. Muh:. Mahfili Publications, no. 1, p. 10.
93 Bilgi Locasi Nesriyati (A Publication of the Bilgi Lodge), no.1, Kurtuncu Printing House, Ankara, p. 74.
94 Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, Risale-i Nur Collection, Beyanat ve Tenvirler (Declarations and Illuminations), p. 77.
95 Ibid., p. 21.
96 Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, Risale-i Nur Collection, Son Sahitler (Last Witnesses), p. 272.
97 Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, Risale-i Nur Collection, Rays, 14th Ray.
98 Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, Risale-i Nur Collection, Emirdag Lahikasi (Emirdag Letters), p. 15.
99 Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, Risale-i Nur Collection, Sunuhat, 47; ... udoglu.htm.
100 Uner Birkan, Mimar Sinan, no. 104, 1997, p. 63.
101 Phoenixmasonry Masonic Museum, 1769 Edition of Anderson's Book of Constitutions, ... utions.htm
102 Sakul Gibi (A Turkish Masonic Journal), 3/25, p. 20.
103 The Three Degrees of Freemasonry, Entered Apprentice Degree, First Section with Oath,
104 Fehmi Koru, Zaman (A Turkish Daily), January 18, 1997.
105 Sukru Kanber, Milli Gazete (A Turkish Daily), January 17, 1997.
106 Commissione Parlamentare d'inchiesta sul fenomeno della Mafia e sulle altre associazioni criminali similari, Relazione sui Rapporti tra Mafia e Politica, Roma, 1993, p. 59.
107 Selam (A Turkish Daily), Gundem "Susurlukta ikinci bolum" (2nd. Chapter in Susurluk), Cevdet Kiliclar, August 30 - September 5, 1998.
108 Milli gazete, Mustafa Yilmaz, September 24, 1997
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Re: Freemasonry and Masonic rituals - Unveiling the Secrets

Post by bean »

Freemasonry in Egypt pdf
"FREEMASONRY IN EGYPT Is it still around?" by Samir Raafat, Insight Magazine, March 1, 1999:
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Re: Freemasonry and Masonic rituals - Unveiling the Secrets

Post by Firestarter »

bean wrote: Thu Jan 28, 2021 5:49 pmIsindag is much more overt about the influence of Ancient Egypt on the origins of Masonry when he declares, "Freemasonry is a social and ritual organization whose beginnings go back to Ancient Egypt."61

Many other Masonic authorities maintain that the origins of Masonry go back to secret societies of ancient pagan cultures, such as those of Ancient Egypt and Greece. A senior Turkish Mason, Celil Layiktez, stated in an article in Mimar Sinan magazine entitled, "The Masonic Secret: What is Secrecy and What is Not?"
My problem with arguments like that is that Freemasons try to give their cult legitimacy by claiming that it's based on something "ancient" (like ancient Romans, Greeks or Egypt).
Freemasonry was only founded in the 17th century and that they recycle old symbols doesn't explain anything really.
My problem with symbolism in general is that it's almost impossible to "understand". To understand these symbols you have to look for the deeper meaning of the first occurrences. Egypt is a good place to start, but they were preceded by the Sumerians.

Maybe you like the following 1928 book by a freemason that reads more like an encyclopedia than a comprehensive book (a good or bad thing, depending on what you're looking for)...
It contains information on lots of "occult" religions, cults, including Freemasonry and the Kabbalah... with lots of pictures.

Kabbalism has influenced alchemy, Hermeticism, Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry.
The simple Kabbalism of the first centuries after Jesus Christ has evolved into an elaborate theological system, which has since become next to impossible to comprehend.

The Chaldean god Baal was often called Baal-Zebul (a.k.a. Baalzebub or Beelzebub).
The word zebub means fly. Beelzebub was ridiculed by the Jews as Lord of the Flies.

See the following masonic apron, with:
Compass and square;
Trowel, mallet and trestleboad;
Rough and trued ashlars;
Pyramids and hills of Lebanon;

Pillars, Temple, and checkerboard floor;
Blazing star and tools of the Craft;
Acacia branch with seven sprigs;
Skull and cross bones.

According to De Quincey, Robert Fludd (a.k.a. Robertus de Fluctibus) is THE founding father of Freemasonry.
According to Edward Waite, Fludd even surpassed his master Paracelsus.

Lucifer is the greatest mystery of symbolism. Lucifer is represented by the number 741 (the year that the founder of the Carolingian dynasty Charles Martel died).
The secret knowledge of the Rosicrucians concerning Lucifer is a carefully guarded secret.

In Phrygia there existed a cult dedicated to another Savior-God, Atys or Attis (probably synonymous with Adonis). Atys was born at midnight on 24 December. The symbolism of the Christmas tree comes from the rites of Atys (according to Hall, but Firestarter disagrees).
After he died under a pine tree, Atys imparted his immortality to the tree beneath which he died. The Great Mother (Cybele), took his body to a cave where it remained without decaying. She also took the tree with her.
Atys remained 3 days in the tomb, rose upon Easter morn, and by his resurrection overcame death for all who were initiated into his Mysteries.

Manly Palmer Hall - The Secret Teachings of All Ages: An Encyclopedic Outline Of Masonic, Hermetic, Qabbalistic, and Rosicrucian Symbolic Philosophies (1928): ... -hall-1928
(3.3 MB ... l.Ages.pdf)
The Order of the Garter rules the world: ... 5549#p5549
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Re: Freemasonry and Masonic rituals - Unveiling the Secrets

Post by bean »

Firestarter wrote: Mon Feb 01, 2021 8:28 pm
Maybe you like the following 1928 book by a freemason that reads more like an encyclopedia than a comprehensive book (a good or bad thing, depending on what you're looking for)...
It contains information on lots of "occult" religions, cults, including Freemasonry and the Kabbalah... with lots of pictures.
Firestarter wrote: Mon Feb 01, 2021 8:28 pm
Manly Palmer Hall - The Secret Teachings of All Ages: An Encyclopedic Outline Of Masonic, Hermetic, Qabbalistic, and Rosicrucian Symbolic Philosophies (1928): ... -hall-1928
(3.3 MB ... l.Ages.pdf)

The audio book version:
THE SECRET TEACHINGS OF ALL AGES - Manly P Hall - Audio Book (Chapter One starts at 1:30:00)
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Freemasonry, Zionism and Mormons

Post by Firestarter »

I sometimes wonder what's the use of investigating one "secret society", as all of them share a similar structure, and are controlled by the same psychopaths.
You've probably heard about the Mormon Church, but never realised that it's associated to both freemasonry and Zionism (with all 3 based on the occult, Satanic Kabbalah).

In the 1830s, the “Mormon” Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS) was founded on a platform of blatant Zionism. In general, Mormons are staunch Zionists.
The first article on the Mormon-Zionist connection is from a Mormon, who confirms that the LDS church at its basis is Zionist…

From its earliest days, more than 180 years ago, the LDS Church has called on Jews to gather in Palestine and form a state. The first edition of the LDS newspaper announced that it “comes to bring good tidings of great joy to all people, but more especially to the House of Israel scattered abroad, for the Lord hath set His hand again the second time to restore them to the lands of their inheritance”.

In 1834, a Mormon newspaper editor explained:
We believe that God has set His hand to recover the remnant of His people, Israel; and that the time is near when He will bring them from the four winds and reinstate them upon their own lands which He gave their fathers by covenant.
At the dedication of the first temple of the LDS cult in 1836, the President of the Church asked that “the children of Judah may begin to return to the lands which thou didst give to Abraham, their father”.

The LDS Church has officially supported the creation of Israel.
After Israel was established, the LDS purchased thousands of dollars of Israel bonds.

There has also been a controversial practice by the LDS Church to “baptise” Jews that were killed (including in the “Holocaust”), which included Anne Frank, Albert Einstein and Simon Wiesenthal’s parents:

According to the Book of Mormon, a tribe of Israelites (Jews?) came to America 600 BD to avoid persecution. They divided into the Nephites and the Lamanites groups, who fought each other. In 428 AD, the Nephites were defeated.
This means that Mormons believe both themselves (Nephites) and Native Americans (Lamanites) to be Israelites in a literal sense.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints has acknowledged that its founder, Joseph Smith, wed as many as 40 wives (as young as 14).

According to the LDS church, the Garden of Eden of the Tanach (Old Testament) is located in Jackson County, Missouri.

Mormon health guidelines mean that Mormons must abstain from alcohol, tobacco, coffee, tea and illegal drugs.

Mormons pay tithing as a form of tax by the LDS Church.
Mormons are indoctrinated to respect authority and missionary work.

Like in Freemasonry there is a hierarchy in the LDS Church:
1) The first presidency (president and two counsellors);
2) The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles;
3) The First Quorum of the Seventy;
4) Stake Presidency;
5) Ward Bishopric;
6) Lower members:

There are at least 5 types of stars on LDS temples.

See the 6-pointed star of David on the St. Louis Missouri Temple.

See the inverted 5-pointed star (the Satanic pentagram) on the Nauvoo Temple.
Image ... em/s/86110

Here’s a Mormon article on the controversial belief that as Mormons are like their Father, righteous Mormons will become gods, with the capacity to create planets of their own.
And that God had a human body, before he became “exalted”: ... d?lang=eng

I guess that some Mormons will strongly disagree with the following Texe Marrs article...

Texe Marrs calls the “thoroughly Zionist and Judaic” LDS church one of the “notorious and whorish daughters of the beast” (Satan).
The Mormon Church has all the “artificial trappings of a false Christianity”, including a “counterfeit” New Testament (The Book of Mormon), and a “counterfeit“ Jesus. It also teaches of the coming of the “New Jerusalem”.

While the Mormons worship “Jesus”, this is not the Jesus of the New Testament. According to Mormons, Jesus was a mere man who “earned” his godhood. According to Marrs, the Mormon Jesus is the “spiritual brother of Lucifer”, who, according to the Mormons indoctrination, will be redeemed and he, like Jesus, will become a god.
Even more bizarre is that (some or all?) Mormons believe that the “Father God”, like Jesus, was once a man. The Mormon “God” resides on a star called Kolob where he copulates with his many wives to produces more children, male and female. All of his male “spiritual children” will someday become a “god” over their own star-planet (with their own harem of wives to produce more Gods).

The Mormons even believe that their men, if faithful to the LDS Church, will earn their own star-planet, where they can have sex with their harem of wives to produce ever more “Gods”.

The Jewish rabbis cooperate fully with the Salt Lake City Mormons elite to achieve their “earthly goals”. The LDS Church tries to exalt physical Israel as “God’s Chosen People” and establish a Hebrew-led global empire, led by a Hebrew King.

The Mormon Church isn’t only Zionist in character, but also Freemasonic; its rituals and doctrines are essentially Masonic. The founder of the LDS cult, Joseph Smith, was a Freemason.
Freemasonry is also a Zionist cult, which has adopted the Jewish Kabbala for its doctrine and rituals. Mormonism, Masonry, and Judaism are 3 interlinked and inseparable components of “Satan’s Zionist Army”: ... ormons.htm
The Order of the Garter rules the world: ... 5549#p5549
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Re: Freemasonry and Masonic rituals - Unveiling the Secrets

Post by Firestarter »

The ARCH is a word and a structure that features prominently over the millennia……

ARCHES are used extensively in building powerful word constructs and social control structures as well as being used extensively in ARCHitecture and civil engineering.

These power structures are always hierARCHical, often with a single entity at the top known as a monARCH.

The MASONIC control structure has certainly adopted this ARCHitecture and even pretends to be borne out of the stone mason fraternities.

Roman ARCH of Constantine.

In Gnosticism, ARCHons are the builders of the physical universe. Among the ARCHontics, Ophites, Sethians and in the writings of Nag Hammadi library, the ARCHons are rulers, each related to one of seven planets; they prevent souls from leaving the material realm.

Roman ARCH of JANUS.


The ARCHers – a long running program through history – not just the BBC….

'SOVEREIGN' - literally means to reign from above.
This is why the MonARCH of a country is referred to as 'Your HIGHNESS'
Then we have
MatriARCHs - a system of society or government ruled by a woman or women
PatriARCHs - a system of society or government in which the father or eldest male is head of the family and descent is reckoned through the male line.
OligARCHs - government by the few, especially despotic power exercised by a small and privileged group for corrupt or selfish purposes.

In these long-running and ARCHaic societal control structures we also have:
ARCH dukes and ARCH duchesses
ARCH bishops
ARCH deacons
ARCH druids

SquireARCHies - landowners collectively, especially when considered as a class having political or social influence
mARCHioness - a noblewoman with the rank of marquess, or the wife of a marquess.
mARCHer lords - A Marcher Lord was a noble appointed by the King of England to guard the border between England and Wales. A Marcher Lord was the English equivalent of a margrave or a marquis before the introduction of the title of "marquess" in Britain
ARCHimandrite - the superior of a large monastery or group of monasteries in the Orthodox Church
ARCHaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological, and environmental systems through their study of the past

TrierARCH - the title of officers who commanded a trireme in the classical Greek world. In Classical Athens, the title was associated with the trierarchy, one of the public offices or liturgies, which were filled by wealthy citizens for a year

HagiARCHy - government by saints, holy men, or men in holy orders

AutARCHic - having and exercising complete political power and control: absolute, absolutistic, arbitrary, autarchical, autocratic, autocratical, despotic, dictatorial, monocratic, totalitarian, tyrannic, tyrannical, tyrannous
HeptARCHy - a collective name applied to the seven kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century until the 8th century consolidation into the four kingdoms of Mercia, Northumbria, Wessex and East Anglia.

TetrARCHy - term adopted to describe the system of government of the ancient Roman Empire instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire
TheARCHy - rule by a god or gods
GynARCHy - rule by women or a woman.
ExARCHate - a Byzantine province governed by an exARCH

All this history was documented by ARCHivists – with old records being kept on pARCHment

At school we are not taught the true meaning of the ARCHway….
By passing through the ARCHway we may be unaware that we are entering into an agreement or contract where we are to be ruled over.
The ‘CONTRACT of the ARCH’ perhaps……

ARCANUM and ARCANA - mysterious or specialized knowledge, language, or information accessible or possessed only by the initiate.

ARCHES in Modern Culture….
The ARCHERS - a British BBC radio soap opera broadcast since 1951. Having aired over 19,300 episodes, it is the world's longest-running drama.
The ARCHERS is set in the fictional village of AmBRIDGE
ARCHing over us - the first ever flighted birds….
ARCHaeopteryx – a genus of bird-like feathered dinosaurs.

More famous ARCHes…
ARCHimedes (c. 287 – c. 212 BC)
Considered to be the greatest mathematician of ancient history, and one of the greatest of all time.
The Fields Medal for outstanding achievement in mathematics carries a portrait of ARCHimedes, along with a carving illustrating his proof on the sphere and the cylinder.
The inscription around the head of ARCHimedes is a quote attributed to him which reads in Latin: Transire suum pectus mundoque potiri.

ARCHimedes, Freemasonry and the Moderns Grand Lodge Constitutions.
Frontispiece to the 1723 Edition.

The 1723 edition is well-known for its elaborate frontispiece engraved by John Pine in 1723. It features a classical arcade of John Montagu, the Second Duke of Montagu (Knight of the Garter #532), and the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England (1721-1723), passing the scroll of the "Constitutions" to his 1723 successor, Philip Warton, First Duke of Wharton. Both are attended by their officers. Apollo, god of the sun, charges above in his chariot, symbolizing the meridian height. Behind the gathering is a passageway framed by walls of water - evocative of the parting of the Red Sea.

The 47th proposition of Euclid, is the traditional symbol of a past masters of a Masonic lodge, ARCHhimedes' most famous exclamation is: “Eureka!” (“I have found it!”)
eureka (English) - εύρηκα (Greek)

It isn't often that I literally copy-paste what somebody else has written. This was posted by Drew..., who posts on several forums as Prince Arthur.
I've earlier used information he posted (including "his" pictures) in this thread:
Here’s the PDF by Maloney, one of the very few that has attempted an investigation of the Most Noble Order of the Garter: ... r-v2_3.pdf ... 6310#p6310
The Order of the Garter rules the world: ... 5549#p5549
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